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As the official language, Vietnamese is taught in schools throughout the country.Since the 1940s, Vietnamese governments have made great progress in raising literacy rates and approximately 90 percent of the adult population is literate.Recent progress has been made settling land border disputes with China and Cambodia.The Vietnamese culturally divide their country into three main regions, the north ( Bac Bo ), center ( Trung Bo ), and south ( Nam Bo ), with Hanoi, Hue, and Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon) serving as the main cities of each region.The country's birth rate, estimated to increase at 1.37 percent per year, has led to rapid population growth since the 1980s with approximately 34 percent of the population under 14 years of age. Vietnamese is the dominant language, spoken by an estimated 86.7 percent of the population.It is a tonal Mon-Khmer language with strong Chinese lexical influences.The word Viet he derived from the traditional name for the Vietnamese imperial domain and its people in what is now northern and central Vietnam.
Dialectical differences often serve as important symbols of regional identity in social life.The river deltas of Vietnam's two great rivers, the Red River in the north and the Mekong in the south, dominate those two regions.Both deltas feature irrigated rice agriculture that depends on the annual monsoons and river water that is distributed through immense and complicated irrigation systems. The name Vietnam originated in 1803 when envoys from the newly founded Nguyen dynasty traveled to Beijing to establish diplomatic relations with the Chinese court.The new emperor had chosen the name Nam Viet for his kingdom.